The package `earley' implements earley parser. The earley parser implementation has the following features:
The interface part of the parser is file `earley.h'. The implementation part is file `earley.cpp'. The interface contains the following external definitions and macros:
is reserved to be designation of empty node for translation.
is error code of the parser. The parser functions return the code when parser can not allocate enough memory for its work.
is error code of the parser. The parser functions return the code when we call parsing without defining grammar or call parsing for bad defined grammar.
is error code of the parser. The code is returned when the grammar is defined by description and there is syntax error in the description.
is error code of the parser. The code is returned when the grammar uses reserved names for terminals and nonterminals. There are two reserved names `$S' (for axiom) and `$eof' for end of file (input end marker). The parser adds these symbols and rules with these symbols to the grammar given by user. So user should not use these names in his grammar.
is error code of the parser. The code is returned when the grammar contains several declarations of terminals with the same name.
is error code of the parser. The code is returned when the grammar terminal is described with negative code.
is error code of the parser. The code is returned when the two or more grammar terminals are described with the same code.
is error code of the parser. The code is returned when the grammar given by user has no rules.
is error code of the parser. The code is returned when grammar rule given by user contains terminal in left hand side of the rule.
is error code of the parser. The code is returned when grammar rule translation is not correct. The single reason for this is translation of the rule consists of translations of more one symbols in the right hand side of the rule without forming an abstract tree node.
is error code of the parser. The code is returned when abstract node has a negative cost.
is error code of the parser. The code is returned when grammar rule translation contains incorrect symbol number which should be nonnegative number less than rule right hand side length.
is error code of the parser. The code is returned when there is grammar nonterminal which can not be derived from axiom.
is error code of the parser. The code is returned when there is grammar nonterminal which can not derive a terminal string.
is error code of the parser. The code is returned when there is grammar nonterminal which can derive only itself. The parser does not work with such grammars.
is error code of the parser. The code is returned when the parser got input token whose code is different from all grammar terminal codes.
describes all possible nodes of abstract tree representing the translation. There are the following enumeration constants:
the corresponding node represents empty translations.
the corresponding node represents translation of special terminal `error' (see error recovery).
the corresponding node represents translation of a terminal.
the corresponding node represents an abstract node.
the corresponding node represents an alternative of the translation. Such nodes creates only when there are two or more possible translations. It means that the grammar is ambiguous.
represents node of the translation. The nodes refer for each other forming DAG (direct acyclic graph) in general case. The main reason of generating DAG is that some input fragments may have the same translation, when there are several parsings of input (which is possible only for ambiguous grammars). But DAG may be created even for unambigous grammar because some nodes (empty and error nodes) exist only in one exemplar. When such nodes are not created, the translation nodes forms a tree. This structure has the following members:
representing type of the translation node.
Depending on the translation node type, one of the union members `nil', `error', `term', `anode', and `alt' of the structure types described below is used to represent the translation node.
represents empty node. It has no members. Actually the translation is DAG (not tree) in general case. The empty and error nodes are present only in one exemplar.
represents translation of special terminal `error'. It has no members. The error node exists only in one exemplar.
represents translation of terminals. It has the following two members:
representing code of the corresponding terminal.
representing cost of the node plus costs of all children if the cost flag is set up. Otherwise, the value is cost of the abstract node itself.
is reference for the attribute of the corresponding terminal.
represents abstract node. It has the following two members:
representing name of anode as it given in the corresponding rule translation.
is array of nodes representing the translations of the symbols given in the rule with the abstract node.
represents an alternative of the translation. It has the following two members:
representing alternative translation.
is reference for the next alternative of translation.
Earley parsers are objects of this class. The class has the following members:
creates new parser. The grammar of the parser is not defined.
frees all memory allocated for the parser.
returns the last occurred error code (see the possible error codes above) for given parser. If the function returns zero, no error was found so far.
`int error_code (void)'
returns detail message about last occurred error. The message always corresponds to the last error code returned the previous function.
`const char *error_message (void)'
is one of two functions which tunes the parser to given grammar. The grammar is read with the aid functions given as parameters.
`int read_grammar (int strict_p, const char *(*read_terminal) (int *code), const char *(*read_rule) (const char ***rhs, const char **abs_node, int *anode_cost, int **transl))'
`read_terminal' is function for reading terminals. This function is called before function `read_rule'. The function should return the name and the code of the next terminal. If all terminals have been read the function returns NULL. The terminal code should be nonnegative.
`read_rule' is function called to read the next rule. This function is called after function `read_terminal'. The function should return the name of nonterminal in the left hand side of the rule and array of names of symbols in the right hand side of the rule (the array end marker should be `NULL'). If all rules have been read, the function returns `NULL'. All symbol with name which was not provided function `read_terminal' are considered to be nonterminals. The function also returns translation given by abstract node name and its fields which will be translation of symbols (with indexes given in array given by parameter `transl') in the right hand side of the rule. All indexes in `transl' should be different (so the translation of a symbol can not be represented twice). The end marker of the array should be a negative value. There is a reserved value of the translation symbol number denoting empty node. It is value defined by macro `EARLEY_NIL_TRANSLATION_NUMBER'. If parameter `transl' is `NULL' or contains only the end marker, translations of the rule will be empty node. If `abs_node' is `NULL', abstract node is not created. In this case `transl' should be null or contain at most one element. This means that the translation of the rule will be correspondingly empty node or the translation of the symbol in the right hand side given by the single array element. The cost of the abstract node if given is passed through parameter `anode_cost'. If `abs_node' is not `NULL', the cost should be greater or equal to zero. Otherwise the cost is ignored.
There is reserved terminal `error' which is used to mark start point of error recovery.
Nonzero parameter `strict_p' value means more strict checking the grammar. In this case, all nonterminals will be checked on ability to derive a terminal string instead of only checking axiom for this.
The function returns zero if it is all ok. Otherwise, the function returns the error code occured.
is another function which tunes the parser to given grammar. The grammar is given by string `description'. The description is similiar YACC one. It has the following syntax:
`int parse_grammar (int strict_p, const char *description)'
So the description consists of terminal declaration and rules sections.
file : file terms [';'] | file rule | terms [';'] | rule terms : terms IDENTIFIER ['=' NUMBER] | TERM rule : IDENTIFIER ':' rhs [';'] rhs : rhs '|' sequence [translation] | sequence [translation] sequence : | sequence IDENTIFIER | sequence C_CHARACTER_CONSTANT translation : '#' | '#' NUMBER | '#' '-' | '#' IDENTIFIER '(' numbers ')' numbers : | numbers NUMBER | numbers '-'
Terminal declaration section describes name of terminals and their codes. Terminal code is optional. If it is omitted, the terminal code will the next free code starting with 256. You can declare terminal several times (the single condition its code should be the same).
Character constant present in the rules is a terminal described by default. Its code is always code of the character constant.
Rules syntax is the same as YACC rule syntax. The single difference is an optional translation construction starting with `#' right after each alternative. The translation part could be a single number which means that the translation of the alternative will be the translation of the symbol with given number (symbol numbers in alternative starts with 0). Or the translation can be empty or `-' which mean empty node. Or the translation can be abstract node with given name, optional cost, and with fields whose values are the translations of the alternative symbols with numbers given in parentheses after the abstract node name. You can use `-' in abstract node to show that empty node should be used in this place. If the cost is absent it is believed to be one. The cost of terminal, error node, and empty node is always zero.
There is reserved terminal `error' which is used to mark start point of error recovery.
sets up level of usage of look ahead in parser work. Value zero means no usage of lookaheads at all. Lookahead with static (independent on input tokens) context sets in parser situation (value 1) gives the best results with the point of view of space and speed, lookahead with dynamic (dependent on input tokens) context sets in parser situations (all the rest parameter values) does slightly worse, and no usage of lookaheads does the worst. The default value is 1 (lookahead with static situation context sets). The function returns the previously set up level. If the level value is negative, zero is used instead of it. If the value is greater than two, two is used in this case.
`int set_lookahead_level (int level)'
sets up level of debugging information output to `stderr'. The more level, the more information is output. The default value is 0 (no output). The debugging information includes statistics, result translation tree, grammar, parser sets, parser sets with all situations, situations with contexts. The function returns the previously set up debug level. Setting up negative debug level results in output of translation for program `dot' of graphic visualization package `graphviz'.
`int set_debug_level (int level)'
sets up building only one translation tree (parameter value 0) or all parse trees for ambiguous grammar for which several parsings are possible. For unambiguous grammar the flag does not affect the result. The default value is 1. The function returns the previously used flag value.
`int set_one_parse_flag (int flag)'
sets up building only translation tree (trees if we set up one_parse_flag to 0) with minimal cost. For unambiguous grammar the flag does not affect the result. The default value is 0. The function returns the previously used flag value.
`int set_cost_flag (int flag)'
sets up internal flag whose nonzero value means making error recovery if syntax error occurred. Otherwise, syntax error results in finishing parsing (although function `syntax_error' in function `parse' will be called once). The default value is 1. The function returns the previously used flag value.
`int set_error_recovery_flag (int flag)'
sets up recovery parameter which means how much subsequent tokens should be successfully shifted to finish error recovery. The default value is 3. The function returns the previously used flag value.
`int set_recovery_match (int n_toks)'
is major parser function. It parses input according the grammar. The function returns the error code (which can be also returned by `error_code'). If the code is zero, the function will also return root of the parse tree through parameter `root'. The tree representing the translation. Value passed through `root' will be `NULL' only if syntax error was occurred and error recovery was switched off. The function sets up flag passed by parameter `ambiguous_p' if we found that the grammar is ambiguous (it works even we asked only one parse tree without alternatives).
`int parse (int (*read_token) (void **attr), void (*syntax_error) (int err_tok_num, void *err_tok_attr, int start_ignored_tok_num, void *start_ignored_tok_attr, int start_recovered_tok_num, void *start_recovered_tok_attr), void *(*parse_alloc) (int nmemb), void (*parse_free) (void *mem), struct earley_tree_node **root, int *ambiguous_p)'
Function `read_token' provides input tokens. It returns code the next input token and its attribute. If the function returns negative value we've read all tokens.
Function `syntax_error' called when synatctic error has been found. It may print an error message about syntax error which occurred on token with number `err_tok_num' and attribute `err_tok_attr'. The following four parameters describes made error recovery which ignored tokens starting with token given by 3rd and 4th parameters. The first token which was not ignored is described by the last parameters. If the number of ignored tokens is zero, the all parameters describes the same token. If the error recovery is switched off (see comments for `set_error_recovery_flag'), the third and the fifth parameters will be negative and the forth and the sixth parameters will be `NULL'.
Function `parse_alloc' is used by Earley parser to allocate memory for parse tree representation (translation). After calling the class destructor we free all memory allocated for the parser. At this point it is convenient to free all memory but parse tree. Therefore we require the following function. So the caller will be responsible to allocate and free memory for parse tree representation (translation). But the caller should not free the memory until destructor is called for the parser. The function may be called even during reading the grammar not only during the parsing. only during the parsing. Function `parse_free' is used by the parser to free memory allocated by `parse_alloc'. If it is `NULL', the memory is not freed.